TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT
FOR GRAIN PROCESSING

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Bean Crop Processing

The rapid growth in the world population results in an increased interest in the global grain market for legumes. Legumes are, first of all, a source of not expensive protein, as the basis of nutrition for billions of people on our planet, as well as a valuable component in the diet of farm animals. At the same time, the consequences of global climate change, the success of selection and agricultural technology allowed to significantly expand the area of ​​cultivation of legumes and increase their crop productivity. The growing importance of legumes and the increasing interest of farmers, processors and entrepreneurs in them make us take a fresh look at the technology and technique of processing their seeds. It should be noted that the seeds of different legumes have a different chemical composition, different morphological features as well as different physical and mechanical properties, which leads to significant differences in the methods of their processing.

Peas

The traditional method of processing pea seeds involves cleaning them from impurities, fractioning into two cotyledons, fractional hulling, sorting the resulting products, screening, defuzzing and polishing to produce whole peas and split peas. The main disadvantages of this method are low yield of groats (Table 1.1), inability to produce only split peas, complexity of the method and high energy consumption of processing. The given processing method and its results are caused by the use of hulling machines for peas A1-ZShN, which until recently were the only design for such an operation. However, the development by our company of a KASKAD hulling and splitting machine and an MKG pea splitting machine, opened the way for a more advanced, simple and much less energy-consuming pea processing technology, even implemented within the framework of the OPTIMATIK-K multipurpose aggregate groat-milling plant. Such improved method of processing provides for the production of whole and split peas, as well as only split peas. The experience of a number of industries shows that the actual yield when obtaining whole peas and split peas by an improved method of processing is significantly higher than by a traditional method (Table 1.1), and the obtained groats are characterized by an acceptable ready-for-sale condition (Figure 1.2).

Pea Seeds

Fig. 1.1. Pea Seeds

Pea groats

Fig. 1.2. Split Peas by using the improved processing method

Pea groats according to new technology

Fig. 1.3. Split Peas by using the new processing method

At the same time, the content of cotyledons in pea seeds is 90-94% of their mass and, when compared with the obtained yield of split peas, significant unused reserves are visible. This led to a further search for ways to improve the processing method of these crops.

Table 1.1. Product yield of pea groats in case of implementation of various processing methods

Method of Processing Name of Product Yield, %
Traditional Whole and Split Peas 77
Improved Whole and Split Peas 83 - 85
Improved Split Peas 80 - 82
New Split Peas 88 - 90

Today OLIS Company offers a new pea processing method, which ensures almost full use of the whole seed potential in groats (Table 1.1)! A distinctive feature of this processing method is processing of pea seeds without either fractionation, or the use of hulling plants of various types, or the use of hydrothermal processing in order to weaken the bonds between cotyledons and shells. All seeds coming after cleaning are processed into groats without residue, i.e. without any amount of non-processed tailings. The resulting groats are distinguished by their excellent ready-for-sale condition (Fig. 1.3), although the processing method also provides the possibility of separating the resulting groats by quality.

Lentil Seeds.

These crops are rapidly exploring more and more cultivated area in Europe and Asia. Significant volumes of these crops are already grown in Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. However, lack of traditions of lentil groat consumption, as well as traditions of lentil production contribute to the export of these crops in an unprocessed form.

The lack of scientifically-based domestic methods of lentil processing required a study of world experience in working with these seed crops. The analysis showed shortcomings of existing processing methods, which in turn required the development of modern methods for their implementation. As a result, today we offer a fairly simple and effective processing method of processing lentils into groats, which allows obtaining significant competitive advantages when using it.

As a rule, lentil seeds contain a large amount of impurities and are especially difficult to separate. Therefore, when preparing seeds for processing, much attention is paid to their cleaning. Lentil seeds (Fig. 2.1) are relatively small and brittle; therefore, in this regard the correct selection of equipment, patterns and hulling modes becomes especially important. Ready-for-sale condition of lentil groats provides for almost complete absence of any impurities, which is achieved using optical sorting machines, as well as a smooth, shiny surface, which is ensured by special polishing methods (Fig. 2.2 and 2.3).

In any processing method, the yield of finished products significantly depends on the quality of the input material; however, the average indicators of the proposed method for the output of products from seeds grown in Ukraine are given in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1. Product yield in case of lentil seed processing

Name of Product Yield, %
Whole Lentils 60
Lentils split into Cotyledons 18
Broken Seeds 5
Feed Hulling Bran 6
Husks 11
Lentil Seedsы

Fig. 2.1. Lentil Seedsы

Whole Lentils

Fig. 2.2. Whole Lentils

Lentils split into Cotyledons

Рис. 2.3. Lentils split into Cotyledons

If necessary, the proposed processing method may contain an option of producing only split peas, in cotyledons. In this case, there is a decrease in the yield of pea groats, which results in the increased formation of broken seeds and hulling bran

Chickpeas.

Chickpea production volumes in Europe and Asia are also growing rapidly. Chickpea seeds are a good export option of domestic crop production. Properly grown and threshed chickpea seeds are covered with a thin transparent shell and namely in this form it is used in the preparation of various dishes. However, domestic experience in the cultivation of these crops shows that when ripening and threshing chickpeas under condition of high humidity, the seeds are highly prone to fungal diseases. The affected seeds lose their quality and surface appearance, which makes them unsuitable for further use. In a number of cases, such a seeds (Fig. 3.1) can be saved by operation of their hulling, which involves careful removal of the upper damaged covers. As a result of our processing method, when separating 20% ​​of the seed mass in the form of husks and flour, the yield of whole chickpea seeds is about 20%, and the chickpea seeds split into cotyledons is about 60% (Table 3.1, Fig. 3.1-3.5).

Table 3.1. Product yield in case of chickpea hulling.

Name of Product Yield, %
Whole Chickpeas 20
Chickpeas split into Cotyledons 60
Hulling Bran 13
Husks 7
Affected chickpea grain

Рис. 3.1. Affected chickpea grain

Whole Chickpeas

Рис. 3.2. Whole Chickpeas

Chickpeas split into Cotyledons

Рис. 3.3. Chickpeas split into Cotyledons

Hulling Bran

Рис. 3.4. Hulling Bran

лузга

Рис. 3.5. Husks

Bean Seeds.

Bean seeds (Fig. 4.1) are widespread in Arab countries. For instance, almost every Egyptian starts the day with a bean sandwich breakfast. Despite the favorable climate, domestic crop production is taking only the first steps in the cultivation of these crops. All grains and seeds grown in our country are exported in their natural form. However, in the processed form, it costs more!

Although bean seeds can be eaten with the shell, the culture of their consumption, for instance, in Arab countries provides for the use of pre-husked and sorted by size beans.

Depending on the cultivar and the region of cultivation, the bean seeds differ in size, as well as in shape and macro roughness of the surface (Fig. 4.1), which leads to a difference in the modes of their processing. Based on the study of the world experience in bean processing, we have developed and tested a competitive method of processing implemented on the basis of modern equipment and processing techniques. The industrial testing of the proposed method was carried out on batches of beans grown in Ukraine. The average yield of derivative products is shown in table 4.1., and their surface appearance - in Fig. 4.2 - 4.5.

Table 4.1. Product yield of bean processing.

Name of Product Yield, %
Hulled Beans, large 67 - 70
Hulled Beans, small 7 - 10
Hulling Bran 8 - 10
Husks 14 - 17

This processing method is industrial, although it is characterized by simplicity, as well as by the feasibility of implementation at any production scale.

Bean Seeds

Рис. 4.1. Bean Seeds

Hulled Beans, Large

Рис. 4.2. Hulled Beans, Large

Hulled Beans, small

Рис. 4.3. Hulled Beans, small

Hulled Beans

Рис. 4.4. Hulled Beans

Husks

Рис. 4.5. Husks

Kidney Beans.

The common kidney bean seeds in Slavic cuisine are used in a manner which is usual for us (Fig. 5.1). However, there are regions, for example, the Arab world, where for preparing some dishes of kidney beans, it is necessary to separate their upper shell. Nowadays, kidney beans are also a good export option for domestic farmers, and supplying them in processed form is an extra profit. Given the growing interest in these crops, ‘OLIS’ Company has developed a method for processing various types of kidney beans into hulled kidney beans. The average processed yield obtained by testing this method is given in Table 5.1., for their ready-for-sale condition - see Fig. 5.2 and 5.3.

This method of processing is also feasible at any production scale..

Seeds of Kidney Beans

Рис. 5.1. Seeds of Kidney Beans

Hulled Kidney Beans

Рис. 5.2. Hulled Kidney Beans

Hulling Bran

Рис. 5.3. Hulling Bran

Table 5.1. Product yield of kidney bean processing.

Name of Product Yield, %
Hulled Kidney Beans 77 - 82
Hulling Bran 18 - 23
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