Current status of domestic flour millers with a brief excursion into his recent history

Vereshchynsky A.P., Ph.D.
Catalog Ltd «OLIS 2005».

   In the former Soviet Union targets for technological development of grain processing specially created, quite a powerful system of institutions and enterprises operating under the Ministry of bakeries. This system includes a research and design institutes, design offices, manufacturers of equipment, machine-testing stations. Important complementary part of the system was large, highly of the engineering staff, operate a project of grain processing. As part of the system were two major research center, two schools of millers. This Odessa Institute of Food Industry. M.V. Lomonosov  Moscow  State University and the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Grain, Moscow. These institutions were defined milestones of the future, conducted basic research, conducted practical studies, preparing scientific and operational skills. Almost all of the relevant domestic work in the field of millers and still connected with Odessa or Moscow. 
    In the development of Soviet millers are two of the most important period. The first of them in the postwar years. It was in the 50-60's before the war, mostly agricultural, artisanal millers to get started for industrial development. In the production of mill machinery wood everywhere giving way to iron and steel, electric transmission changed individual. For the first time systematically studied the basic processes used in the production of flour and cereals. Were finally driven out basically obsolete types of major technological machinery - grinders and Burat replaced Roller machines and screening. This period is a significant part of basic research in the field of flour millers, which are still valid today. Appeared credible, scientifically sound data that served as the foundation for the improvement of technology and develop new machines. However, by early 70's it became evident that to completely solve the problem of translating domestic millers at current world level in the short term can not be greatly affected after the war behind. In order to eliminate the backlog, the Soviet leadership decided to purchase advanced western technology. 
    The second period of development began in the 70 years since the construction of the country's dozens of mills by the Swiss company "Buller", 500t/day performance. Under the agreement, all equipment supplied Soviet side received all necessary technical documentation and the right to reproduction. To master the production of some new machines had to draw strength shipbuilding, aviation and defense plants, because Plants of bread to cope with such a task technically could not. Thus, domestic millers massively came the world's best technology and best equipment, which served as an impetus for major changes not only in matters of production bakeries, but also in ensuring its further development. Mechanical engineers have reached a new level of cultural production equipment to ensure a high level of reliability, technological efficiency, aesthetic and ergonomic qualities. Science was the foundation for new research and development, as reflected in further improvement of processes and machines, as well as in the use of promising approaches to the creation of new industries. The country itself was able to create a modern milling capacity, paying great attention to the reconstruction of already existing objects. By the early 90's one could argue - domestic millers almost completely rearmed with modern means of production. Stable trends in its further development were provided by progressive flour milling machine-building industry, significant opportunities in the conduct of design and construction works, as well as a weighty scientific potential.
    With the collapse of the Soviet Union's grain processing has lost a single customer, which was the Ministry of bakeries. The overwhelming majority of flour and cereal companies has dramatically lowered production. Almost ceased implementation of new technologies and equipment. Lack of orders has led to the brink of bankruptcy engineering plants, design and construction organizations. Sharply reduced the number of researchers. Due to lack of funding was stopped almost all construction. Existing situation is not possible to solve large industrial scientific and technical problems. In the industry was in turmoil, followed by property no delay, grain markets and bakeries, the struggle to survive yesterday's flagships, intentional and unintentional sabotage, lack at least some designated state approach to what is happening. In such circumstances, it became profitable to convert grain to small mills and groats-shop, saving on transportation, operating and other costs. This led to a massive, spontaneous creation of small industries. At such a need machine manufacturers have responded briskly, including and those who only yesterday and made production, far from the millers. Experience and knowledge needed to create high-performance milling industries, mechanical engineers did not possess and could not possess. Similar problems were previously solved entirely different organization, and only to them they were under strength, but oddly enough, with rare exception, to develop a new type of product professionals are not attracted. Somehow it was decided that the factory KB, which are mainly engaged in development of ready adaptation to the conditions of its production, not having in their composition, even ordinary technologist-miller, will become the vanguard of the milling of thought. Each manufacturer has sought to reach the widest possible list of cars. Often the equipment from different manufacturers, including and the industrial level, different, and now differs only in degree of capacity to manufacture, being identical in design. With such a copy (including import samples) lose a lot of important features, which in layman's terms were not significant. Abolition of mandatory testing machine tester stations served that equipment specifications, declared in the passports of its producers, often heavily overstatement and does not correspond to actual. Thus, the market is filled with "raw" hardware that implements the self-made technology. Nevertheless, buy and sell all since consumer of such products has become all-consuming market in the face of yesterday's farmers and people far from the grain processing industry. 
    As market saturation of both hardware and manufactured products on it, and grew up half-baked millers. They became clear that with this equipment today to compete hard. A search for more suitable equipment carried abroad the fatherland, the more so as an offer to purchase imported equipment is not forced to wait. Buy what is cheaper, and where the promises of vendors to satisfy fantasies of buyers. The most interesting thing is that hardly anyone of these buyers thought it necessary to know the opinion of the impending purchase of a domestic professional millers. Grain processing continues replenished technically weak or obsolete production facilities. A few months after launching equipment in the work, the owners of such facilities, it became clear that the real technical and, consequently, the economic performance of acquired far from embedded in the business plan data. Started "is not included in the plans" for improvement. Time showed that the imported objects of small grain, due to lack of evidence-based approaches to their creation and abroad, is also formed on the basis of assumptions. Furthermore, even large objects that is developed and manufactured by our company - not new to the millers, there are serious claims. Any millers when viewed from a number of such objects, it became clear that they are for a grain processing quality, to develop other products and other quantities. Some of them apply processes are not compatible with modern production, such as washing grains, which by virtue of environmental impacts in developed countries have already forgotten. As a result, the country began a new, spontaneous round of very questionable equipment. 
    As of today, when the market bakeries filled by tightening competition technically or organizationally weak production idle. This also applies to large industrial enterprises of the former bakery. However, there are a number of enterprises that are loaded at 100%, for which their business is quite profitable, and they plan to or are expanding. For each such successful production, as time has shown, it is worth a lot of work specialists, who made his fine-tuning and adjustment. In some places, this function was performed by equipment manufacturers, improving their offspring directly to existing facilities. However, much work on fine-tuning was carried out by specialists of the former bakery, whose knowledge and experience have helped to eliminate mistakes and correct the errors inherent developers of equipment, including and overseas. 
    With market saturation grain products by the end of the 90's, the demand for mills and groats-shop plummeted. Random people in the processing of grain fall is rare. Today's customers - it's grain traders, large owners of existing mills and groats-shop. Sell outdated or "unfinished" equipment has become more difficult. Therefore, a number of enterprises producing mill equipment or providing services in this sector, including foreign manufacturers were forced to leave the business or go on a more unpretentious markets. However, currently there are separate groups, including some engineering enterprises, and even some experts who could not only "survive", but also multiply their achievements and expertise. Particularly valuable is the fact that in 10-15 years, their work took place in a unique, naturally created by landfill engineering masterpieces of the absurd and the value of an entire industry, which is impossible to create in any laboratory. 
    Millers is inherently a very conservative area of human activity. The basis of the processes used for grain, is a simple mechanic, the basics of aerodynamics and biochemistry. The listed segments of Sciences have centuries of history, their development at the level of discovery ended long ago. With the advent of early last century, Roller machine and sieving, milling technology progress is very slow, at the level of small improvements, often with barely discernible practical effect. Even the glossy veneer of new machines and crafty combinations of their parts made leaders of the world millers, hidden system "product-working body, which is virtually unchanged over time. Its laws are well-known domestic experts. Attention should be applied by Western companies reliable drive units, advanced automation and instrumentation, manufactured, usually by others, specializes in this businesses. But domestic manufacturers are willing to use the same components as domestic customers will be willing to pay for them. So it felt hopeless backwardness of domestic milling science and technology should be recognized in error. 
    What are we still lagging? In food technology the developed countries have long established and rapidly continues to develop the use of chemicals and other artificial means of influence on the protein-starch complex of grain milling products, to ensure that given the consumer properties of products produced. Such treatment is often carried out not only during the baking of bread, making pastry or food concentrates, but also in the development of flour and cereals as raw materials for the above industries. Indicated to some extent will reduce the selection of grains, flour mills technical level, staff development, the production process, while ensuring the required properties of products. In addition, it allows us to simplify the process of making flour or cereal. In our country the use of funds under consideration at the millers is practically not observed. Does not deal with these issues yet, and domestic science. Our millers have yet to work traditionally, ensuring the success of his ability, hoping only that nature has laid in the grain. Of this lag, we only stand to gain. Natural product as a component of the health of any nation, is becoming increasingly valuable in today's world, providing a way produced any markets. 
    Thus, the modern domestic flour millers is in its next stage of development. He characterized the developing persistent trend towards the use of professional approaches to millers and ensuring its fields. Processes depression alone businesses, education or other development are continuous. Nevertheless, about 70% of the available industry equipment worn out and will be replaced. Recent years are related to success in the production of grain, some improvement in economic performance of the grain processing enterprises, small but increasing revenues in the sector of investment. Maybe in a few years time will come bulk update. The country has remained more teams capable of at the proper level to do the job, and not quite sure just look for solutions abroad, paying bills fabulous. The main thing is that at the time was ripe well-balanced and well thought-out domestic development concept and the industry has not gone back to the realization of the ideas imposed on both domestic and import dealers of flour millers.