TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT
FOR GRAIN PROCESSING

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Vertical dryer VPS-O

Purpose and scope: Dryer is designed for drying grain cereals during hydrothermal treatment in the formulation of cereals.
     Description: Source product passes successively through drying section, where contact with the pipes, hot steam. Then the grain goes to the cooling section, where it is cooled by blowing air and then displayed through a special graduation mechanism.

Purpose and scope: Dryer is designed for drying grain cereals during hydrothermal treatment in the formulation of cereals.
     Description: Source product passes successively through drying section, where contact with the pipes, hot steam. Then the grain goes to the cooling section, where it is cooled by blowing air and then displayed through a special graduation mechanism.

Model VPS-О-3 VPS-О-4 VPS-О-5 VPS-О-6 VPS-О-7 VPS-О-8
The number of heating sections, pcs. 3 4 5 6 7 8
Heating space, m2 40,5 54,0 67,5 81,0 94,5 108,0
Productivity, t/h 1,0-1,3 1,5-1,7 2,0-2,2 2,4-2,6 2,9-3,1 3,3-3,4
Vapour pressure, kPa 400 400 400 400 400 400
The steam consumption per ton of grain, kg/h 280-360 280-360 280-360 280-360 280-360 280-360
Air consumption per ton of grain, m3/h 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000
Power, kW 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5
Weight, kg 3040 3750 4460 5170 5960 6690

1. Drying sections equipped with a device to connect to the forced ventilation, that intensifies the drying process;
2. Cooling section equipped with a device of cooling air distribution and control, that facilitates uniform cooling of the product;
3. Modernized discharge mechanism ensures uniformity of the product discharge with a set productivity, as well as in automatic mode;
4. Increased number of tubes in the drying sections provides high level of the product drying;
5. Precise and smooth adjustment and cooling uniformity due to the presence of separate chokes in the cooling section;
6. Outlet section design provides the optimal product discharge and ensures high quality processing of the product;
7. Components from leading European manufacturers;
8. Meets high hygienic requirements due to stainless food steel used.


Grain is quite hygroscopic, therefore it quickly absorbs moisture from the ambient air. For example, immediately after harvesting, its humidity in our climate is usually about 20 percent, and when harvesting in rainy weather it can exceed 30 percent. Meanwhile, the value of 14-15 percent is considered optimum for storage, therefore the grain is dried – its moisture is reduced using various technological methods.

Why a high moisture content of grain is dangerous

The increased moisture content of grain during storage may have the following consequences:

  • increased breathing;
  • activation of pests.

Chemical processes are activated in wet grain: nutrients are oxidized and "burnt" with the release of carbon dioxide, water and heat. As a result, the weight of the stored crop decreases, and its owner suffers losses.

In addition, pests (insects and microorganisms) cannot live in dry grain, but in wet grain they become active, begin to multiply and feed. This leads not only to the loss of part of the crop, but also to a deterioration in its quality, and therefore in cost.

Drying features

Установка для просушивания хлопьев

Firstly, when drying grain crops, a one-time decrease in moisture content by no more than 8 percent is allowed, otherwise it may crack. If a more significant decrease in humidity is required, the grain dryer makes several drying cycles.

Secondly, for different grains, there are limits above which their heating is unacceptable. For example, rye and barley are highly heat-resistant, therefore they can be heated to 55-60 degrees before storing them (except for malting barley, it can be heated to 35-40 degrees). But oats can be heated up to 50 degrees, peas – up to 40 degrees (with more heating, it will crack).

Thirdly, there are peculiarities and limitations depending on the further fate of the grain. These may include:

  • storage;
  • processing;
  • packaging of finished products for sale.

Before storing grain, it is most important to control the temperature and uniformity of heating. This is especially true for seed grain, because the slightest violation of technology can lead to a decrease in germination.

When drying before processing, the requirements for heating parameters are less stringent, but exceeding temperature conditions can be just as harmful. Overheated grain can harden, making it difficult to grind. And the cracks will lead to a decrease in the yield of premium flour.

Drying of finished products has other features: flakes, sticks, etc. are characterized by increased fragility, therefore conventional dryers will spoil them – it is necessary to use units optimized for these products.

Grain drying technologies

Сушилка вертикального типа

There are two main drying grain methods:

  • natural;
  • artificial;
  • mixing with hygroscopic materia.

With natural drying, the grain is laid out in the sun and periodically shovelled. This technique is the most optimal in terms of technology: the grain is not only dried, but also disinfected by solar ultraviolet light, it ripens, the structure improves. However, there are also serious disadvantages:

  • the technique applies only in sunny weather;
  • тit is technologically complex: the grain is poured onto a flat area in a thin layer and is regularly mixed manually; it must be covered overnight or taken indoors;
  • practically not amenable to mechanization, therefore it requires a large number of working hands.

Mixing with hygroscopic substances (sawdust or special granules) is even more difficult and costly in practice, even in comparison with the natural method. It is used to process small batches of high-value selected grain, sometimes for beans.

The most widespread is artificial drying. This technology provides for heating the grain and blowing it with the help of an air stream, which is forced by a fan. At the same time, moisture removal is quick and effective. And if the drying unit is designed correctly, then heating occurs evenly and safely. After the moisture content of the grain reaches the desired level, it is cooled by blowing with atmospheric air.

Varieties of grain drying plants

There are several types of thermal grain dryers:

  • shaft;
  • hopper;
  • chamber.

Shaft dryer (the most common) is a vertical chamber (shaft) through which grain moves from top to bottom, and ventilation is from the side, through perforated or mesh walls. The grain speed is regulated by the outlet device located at the bottom, the blowing power in the heating and cooling zones is independently regulated. This ensures high productivity and excellent controllability of the drying process, while it is possible to dry all types of grain.

Устройство зерносушилки шахтного типа

Drum grain dryers consist of a drying chamber (drum), housing augers or blades that mix the grain mass, furnaces (provides the formation of warm air for blowing) and a cooling chamber. The direction of air movement is usually opposite to the direction of movement of the grain, but there are also options with movement in one direction.

Устройство зерносушилки барабанного типа

Chamber dryers are the simplest, structurally they are chambers in which the grain is stationary. They work in a periodic mode: after heating a portion of the grain mass, the chamber is emptied and filled with a new portion. This design is characterized by low productivity and a low degree of mechanization. However, due to the mild drying modes, it is she who provides the highest quality grain at the exit.

What shall be paid attention to when choosing a dryer

In addition to standard conditions (low price and high durability), when choosing a grain dryer, pay attention to the following features:

  • productivity shall not be much higher than the scale of your farm, otherwise you will overpay for unused capacity;
  • the unit must provide for recuperation, that is, the outgoing warm air must be used to heat the incoming cold air – this will reduce the consumption of energy carriers;
  • the level of automation and mechanization must be maximized – this will prevent losses from personnel errors.

And of course, it should support the ability to dry all those crops that you intend to grow.

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